Biography of Umar ( RA )

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Umar I, in full 士Umar ibn al-Kha峁璽膩b, (born c. 586, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]鈥攄ied November 3, 644, Medina, Arabia), the second Muslim caliph (from 634), under whom Arab armies conquered Mesopotamia and Syria and began the conquest of Iran and Egypt. A ramadan special book by Ehzaan. May Allah bless his soul and rest him in peace. Ramadan special Book 2 Ramadan 2021

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Chapter 1

Umar I, in full 士Umar ibn al-Kha峁璽膩b, (born c. 586, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]鈥攄ied November 3, 644, Medina, Arabia), the second Muslim caliph (from 634), under whom Arab armies conquered Mesopotamia and Syria and began the conquest of Iran and Egypt.

A member of the clan of 士Ad墨 of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, 士Umar at first opposed Muhammad but, in about 615, became a Muslim. By 622, when he went to Medina with Muhammad and the other Meccan Muslims, he had become one of Muhammad鈥檚 chief advisers, closely associated with Ab奴 Bakr. His position in the state was marked by Muhammad鈥檚 marriage to his daughter 岣f峁h in 625. On Muhammad鈥檚 death in 632, 士Umar was largely responsible for reconciling the Medinan Muslims to the acceptance of a Meccan, Ab奴 Bakr, as head of state (caliph). Ab奴 Bakr (reigned 632鈥634) relied greatly on 士Umar and nominated him to succeed him. As caliph, 士Umar was the first to call himself 鈥渃ommander of the faithful鈥 (am墨r al-mu示min墨n). His reign saw the transformation of the Islamic state from an Arabian principality to a world power.

Throughout this remarkable expansion, 士Umar closely controlled general policy and laid down the principles for administering the conquered lands. The structure of the later Islamic empire, including legal practice, is largely due to him. 士Umar established the d墨w膩n (a register of warriors鈥 pensions that over time evolved into a powerful governmental body), inaugurated the Islamic Hijr墨 calendar, and created the office of the qadi (judge). He also established the garrison cities of Al-Fus峁佱弓 in Egypt and Basra and K奴fah in Iraq.

In 644 士Umar was attacked by a Persian Christian slave named Ab奴 Lu示lu示ah and died from his wounds three days later. While he lay dying, 士Umar appointed a six-man council that eventually selected 士Uthm膩n ibn 士Aff膩n as his successor.

A strong ruler, stern toward offenders, and himself ascetic to the point of harshness, 士Umar was universally respected for his justice and authority. His role in decisively shaping the early Islamic community is widely acknowledged.

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