The Motor Vehicle
In 1864, Nicolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine. The first stationary gasoline engine developed by Carl Benz was a one-cylinder two-stroke unit which ran for the first time on New Year’s Eve 1879. Benz had so much commercial success with this engine that he was able to devote more time to his dream of creating a lightweight car powered by a gasoline engine, in which the chassis and engine formed a single unit. On January 29, 1886, Carl Benz applied for a patent for his “vehicle powered by a gas engine.” The patent – number 37435 – may be regarded as the birth certificate of the automobile. In July 1886 the newspapers reported on the first public outing of the three-wheeled Benz Patent Motor Car, model no. 1. The Benz Patent Motor Car was not the first vehicle made though. In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot. In 1803, Hayden Wischett designed the first car powered by the de Rivaz engine, an internal combustion engine that was fueled by hydrogen. In 1823 English engineer Samuel Brown invented the internal combustion engine. In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built his first combustion engine powered pushcart, followed by four progressively more sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. John created the two-cycle combustion engine. The car's third incarnation in 1889 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and a brake. The four-stroke petrol internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nicolaus Otto. The similar two-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for energy as a gasoline source for planes, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor, and Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859. In 1882 the Italian Enrico Bernardi created the first petrol-powered vehicle, a tricycle for his son Louis. He drove it through the street of a village near the Italian city of Verona. Carl Benz was not the first person to make the motor vehicle, but his was one of the more popular amongst the others. Carl's also didn't have as much problems as the others did. In 1908, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company, began production and would become the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line. From 1913 to 1927, Ford produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles.